Oral mucosal issues throughout being pregnant – How frequent are they?


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Quite a few completely different oral lesions have been reported within the literature throughout being pregnant together with pyogenic granuloma, gingival hyperplasia, oral candidiasis, cheek biting, benign migratory glossitis, aphthous ulcers, and telangiectasia. Many of those are thought of to be associated to immune and hormonal adjustments.

The purpose of this assessment was to evaluate the proof concerning the prevalence of oral mucosal lesions throughout being pregnant.


Searches have been performed within the CINAHL, LILACS, LIVIVO, PubMed, Scopus, Net of Science, Google Scholar, OpenGrey, and ProQuest databases with restriction on language or yr of publication. Observational research reporting the prevalence of oral mucosal issues (aphthous ulceration, benign migratory glossitis, candidiasis, cheilitis, gingival epulis, herpes related lesions, leukoedema, lichen planus, papilloma, pemphigus, pemphigoid, pyogenic granuloma, and ulcers) in pregnant ladies have been thought of.  Research involving gingivitis and periodontitis have been excluded.

Two reviewers independently chosen research, abstracted knowledge and assessed threat of bias with a 3rd reviewer being consulted in case of disagreement.  The Joanna Briggs Institute Important Appraisal Guidelines for Research Reporting Prevalence Knowledge was used to evaluate bias.  Prevalence was expressed as imply of relative or absolute frequencies with 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). The general high quality of proof was assessed utilizing the GRADE system.


  • 15 research involving a complete of 5935 sufferers have been included.
  • Knowledge was reported from Egypt, Ghana, India, Iran, Mexico, Nigeria, Pakistan, Turkey and Venezuela.
  • Pattern sizes ranged from 86 – 1600 sufferers.
  • 9 research have been thought of to be at reasonable threat of bias and 6 at low threat of bias.
  • The sufferers have been aged between 10 and 50 years of age with the prevalence of issues starting from zero.22% to 31%.
  • The primary lesions reported have been gingival hyperplasia, morsicatio buccarum (power cheek biting), oral candidiasis, pyogenic granuloma and benign migratory glossitis.
  • The general prevalence price for lesions = 11.eight% (95%CI; 6.5% – 18.four%)
Mucosal dysfunction Prevalence Vary Meta-analysis (95%CI)
gingival hyperplasia 2.9% – 25.zero% 17.1% (5.9% -32.7%)
morsicatio buccarum three.5% – 31.zero% 9.9% (1.three% – 25.2%)
oral candidiasis 1.zero% – 15.zero% four.four% (zero.5% -11.eight %)
pyogenic granuloma zero.22% – 16.6% three.zero% (1.6% – four.eight%)
  • The standard of the proof was thought of to be very low utilizing GRADE.


The authors concluded: –

Issues of the oral mucosa have been current in roughly 1 out of 10 pregnant ladies. Gingival hyperplasia was probably the most prevalent lesion. Additional research ought to apply homogeneous methodology to enhance the standard of proof.


A broad search in a variety of databases has been undertaken for this assessment. Knowledge was solely recognized from a restricted variety of international locations so the findings is probably not significantly generalisable.  Most of the research didn’t report the stage of being pregnant inside findings from 5 research that included this data suggesting that prevalence was larger within the second and third trimester.  All of the included research are cross-sectional in nature and used differing methodologies and diagnostic standards which is an additional consideration to take note of when contemplating the findings of this assessment.


Main Paper

Bett JVS, Batistella EÂ, Melo G, Munhoz EA, Silva CAB, Guerra ENDS, Porporatti AL, De Luca Canto G. Prevalence of oral mucosal issues throughout being pregnant: A scientific assessment and meta-analysis. J Oral Pathol Med. 2019 Jan 23. doi: 10.1111/jop.12831. [Epub ahead of print] Assessment. PubMed PMID: 30673134.

Original review protocol on PROSPERO

Different references

Dental Elf – 15th Mar 2019

Periodontitis and preterm birth


Dental Elf – 27th Oct 2017

Periodontal disease and pregnancy outcomes


Dental Elf – 12th Jun 2015

Oral health promotion during pregnancy: little evidence available



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